Crude drugs. Crude drugs are natural products extracted directly from the plant. Examples of crude drugs are alkaloids, resin, resins, alkaloids, etc. These are obtained by boiling, soaking, crushing, grinding or macerating the raw plant material.
What is cultivation in pharmacognosy?
Cultivation is the process of propagation of the medicinal plant. Plants need favorable conditions for cultivation. The quality and quantity of the medicinal plants depend on the growing conditions. Good weather is essential for the quality and productivity of the medicines.
What is called adulteration?
Adulteration takes place when a company knowingly supplies its products with unapproved, inferior or substitute ingredients known to have similar or the same effect as the original ingredients.
What is Drug Evaluation?
Drug evaluation is the process of studying a drug and how it affects us – and vice-versa. A drug can have a favorable, neutral or unfavorable effect on the recipient. It can be beneficial, have unintended consequences, or have unknown or harmful side-effects.
What are the methods of evaluation of crude drugs?
Methods and methods of evaluation: A. Qualitative methods, e.g. microscopic, chromatic, spectroscopic, gravimetric chemical tests, microscopic, physical or toxicological analysis. B. Organoleptic methods, e.g. flavor test or organoleptic and color tests.
What is mean by crude drug?
Crude drugs : The term “crude drugs” is used for medicinal plant species that have not been processed into refined or manufactured drugs. On the other hand, refined drugs are the plant derived raw materials that have undergone a series of chemical and physical processing to produce drug intermediates.
What is scope of pharmacognosy?
Pharmacognosy is “the study of plants and the drug preparations made from them”. There are two types of pharmacological studies, primary and secondary that are important in pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, the study of plant and plant-derived natural products and active phytochemicals. It is defined as the medicinal uses of plants (materia medica).
What are the advantages of cultivation?
There are many advantages of cultivating land. For example, planting crops on a small plot of land, which results in higher yield. It is much cheaper than purchasing an automobile or a refrigerator. The price of a piece of land will also reduce if a person is cultivating it for many years.
What are the types of adulteration?
Types of adulteration include: adulteration of drugs with additives (substances added to increase the strength or effect of a drug); fraudulently manufacturing, selling, or administering (making, selling, or administering a drug) as a drug or other preparation.
What are adulterated drugs?
Adulterated foods are those foods or medical products that do not conform to the FDA’s good manufacturing standards. They can be found on the FDA website by searching for the term Adulterated Food. Examples include food that has been dyed or artificially colored and food that has been spoiled or is contaminated with harmful bacteria.
Who is the father of pharmacognosy?
The first pharmacognosists were the ancient Greek physicians of the 4th century BC who used medicines to treat diseases. A later pioneer in the field was the Roman physician Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79).
What are the methods of evaluating drugs?
Methods of evaluating drugs. Before starting any new drug, a drug is considered to first be used to determine the risk/benefit profile (i.e. risk versus benefit) and, if applicable, to monitor safety.
What is cultivation of plant?
Plant cultivation or plant culture is the cultivation of a plant, not an animal, as a growing organism. A plant can be grown in one of three ways: by growing a seed in the ground and letting it spring to life, by propagating a part of a plant by transferring this part, or by cloning a plant by cutting back the root system, propagating the new root system, and then planting the cut segment.
What is garbling in pharmacognosy?
Garbling. A garbled name is a name that is not in alphabetical order or there is more than one spelling of the same name. The Garbled Names can sometimes be difficult to recognize because the sound made by the phonetic symbol,, is different from the symbol usually used to represent the name.
How do you store medicinal plants?
The answer depends on whether you want to store your plant in a small or a larger container. Soil or pot with drainage holes may be easier for you, as you can take out the plant as necessary. Soil.
Also Know, what is adulteration of crude drugs?
There is no legal standard of purity applicable to adulterations of crude drugs. An adulteration is legally treated as an intentional and wrongful addition or omission. An adulteration of drugs is illegal. An FDA inspector can refuse to accept a shipment or stop it at an airport.
What are organized drugs?
Organized crime refers to a criminal organization committed to a particular enterprise or goal. Its members have decided to commit crimes, usually as part of a mutually supportive group. Organized criminals usually work with the involvement of others because there are rewards for committing crime.
What do you mean by organoleptic evaluation of drugs?
Chemical analysis of drugs, drugs, biological samples and environmental samples is performed by the Analytical Laboratory to identify the drug ingredients and metabolites. Drug metabolites are also measured to evaluate their concentration and compare it to the reference range.
What is the purpose of taking transverse section of crude drug?
A transverse section of a substance is a cut made across the axis of the material substance making the top and bottom surfaces of the cross section parallel to the surface of the top and bottom of the material. The purpose of conducting these surveys (the transverse sections) is generally to obtain basic information about the medicinal plant.
Correspondingly, what is crude drug evaluation?
What is the raw materials evaluation principle of the market? Evaluate raw materials according to their price and quantity. Evaluate raw materials according to their size, price and quality standards. Raw materials are evaluated on the basis of their price, size, cost and quality.
What are the methods of cultivation?
Four methods of cultivation are practiced: the terrace (jhum), the strip plan, the low ridged ridged raised fields, and the double ridged ridged raised field (called Kumbh Mela in India). The most common practice, by far, is the terrace system, which is the most labor-intensive, as well as the most expensive.